COURSE DESCRIPTIONS

Master of Acupuncture Studies Degree

MASTERS OF ACUPUNCTURE COURSE DESCRIPTIONS

ACS 500 (2 CREDITS) ORIENTAL NUTRITIONAL THERAPY
This course is meant to support student understanding and application of nutritional therapies according to the principles of traditional Oriental medicine. Properties of food are discussed as they relate to Yin/Yang, Five Phase, and Eight Principle theory. This course will introduce students to nutritional strategies commonly employed in both eastern and western traditions.

ACS 501 (4 CREDITS) ORIENTAL MEDICAL THEORY I
The first section of this course introduces students to the history and philosophy of Oriental Medicine. It includes the historical development of Oriental Medicine in China, Korea, Japan, and the West. An introduction to Confucian, Taoist, and Buddhist philosophical traditions provides context as students learn the basic theories of Oriental Medicine. In the subsequent sections of this course, major concepts and theories of Oriental Medicine are introduced, including Yin/ Yang theory, Five Phase, Chinese Organ Physiology, and the causes of disease.

ACS 502 (4 CREDITS) ORIENTAL MEDICAL THEORY II
Prerequisite: AcS 501
This course introduces students to the various theories and methods of diagnosis and pattern identification. Students study the four diagnostic methods, the Eight Principles, and Qi, Blood, and Body fluid patterns, as well as Five Element diagnostic techniques. Zang-fu theory and patterns also are explored. In this course, students build upon the cause of disease theory covered in AcS 501 with more detailed diagnosis theory. Further, students learn to define appropriate treatment principles in both TCM and Five Element styles.

ACS 503 (4 CREDITS) ORIENTAL MEDICAL THEORY III
Prerequisite: AcS 501/502
This course will deepen students’ knowledge of Five Element diagnosis. Students will study the primary energetic blocks to treatment in Five Element theory, review the criteria for diagnosis, and practice taking histories and analyzing cases. Students will also examine acupuncture point classification and treatment as presented in classical texts. Treatment planning theory will be introduced, though the course will center on the diagnostic interview, physical diagnosis, and case analysis. 

ACS 504 (NON-CREDIT) CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION (CPR)
This course is a CPR class following the American Red

Cross Model for healthcare providers. Certification is required for students to enter clinical internship. Though sometimes offered on-site, this course typically is completed through another organization. The cost of this course is approximately $60-$75, and is not included in tuition.

ACS 505 (1 CREDIT) CHINESE MEDICAL LANGUAGE
This course functions as an introduction to Chinese language for English-speaking Chinese Medical students. Students familiarize themselves with Chinese characters, common terms used in Chinese Medicine, and basic character configuration. This course enables students to consult a Chinese medical dictionary and locate relevant characters. Students also may expand their knowledge of Chinese names for points, herbs and formulas. Students collaborate to translate a medical journal article from the original Chinese.

ACS 511 (4 CREDITS) DIFFERENTIATION OF DISEASE I
Prerequisite: Successful completion of all first-year AcS courses.
The first course in a two-part series provides students with an introduction to the general principles of treatment and the methods of differentiating the main diseases categorized in Oriental medicine into discrete patterns. Commonly encountered disorders are discussed, including common cold, cough, stomach pain, diarrhea, constipation, edema, insomnia, headache, and low back pain, among others. Traditional Chinese Medical pattern differentiation of these diseases is discussed according to clinical manifestations, tongue, and pulse. In addition to acupuncture, other clinically-effective modalities are explored. Students develop the knowledge necessary to deconstruct diseases into Chinese Medical disease diagnoses in order to clarify pattern discrimination and treatment.

ACS 512 (4 CREDITS) DIFFERENTIATION OF DISEASE II
Prerequisite: AcS 511
The second course in a two-part series provides students with the methods of differentiating into discrete patterns the primary diseases categorized in Oriental medicine. Commonly encountered disorders are discussed. Traditional Chinese Medical pattern differentiation is discussed in relation to symptoms, tongue, and pulse. In addition to acupuncture, other clinically-effective modalities are explored. Theory and practice of treatment according to the Eight Extraordinary Meridians is covered along with clinical diagnostic and treatment protocols.

ACS 515 (3 CREDITS) RESEARCH IN ORIENTAL MEDICAL THEORY
The theoretical basis of Oriental medicine has been formulated through generations of empirical observations. In recent years, however, modern scientific research methods have been applied to Oriental Medical techniques, and many studies have been published and translated to English. In this course, students learn to examine and critically appraise published research from the Western medical literature and engage in comparative analysis. Informational literacy training and research skill development form the crux of this course. Students complete a group research project in which they develop their own study with the option of executing the study in the third year of the program.

ACS 530 (4 CREDITS) DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES (TONGUE, PULSE, CSOE)
Prerequisite: Successful completion of all first-year AcS courses.

This course provides theoretical instruction and adds hands-on training in the Four Examinations: inspection, auscultation, olfaction, and palpation. Students discuss and practice these techniques in class. In addition to tongue and pulse examination and Mu and Shu point palpation, abdominal palpation theory is introduced. Color, Sound, Odor, and Emotion (CSOE) assessments are discussed in depth. Each method of diagnosis is integrated into initial intake discussions. These diagnostic techniques are presented in historical context and in relation to relevant classical texts. Zang-fu and Five Element theory are reviewed from this vantage point.

ACS 531 (NON-CREDIT) CLEAN NEEDLE TECHNIQUE
Prerequisite: AcS 532
This course teaches the appropriate sterilization and sanitation procedures for the practice of acupuncture. Students learn clean and safe needle techniques and take the national examinations in clean needle technique sponsored by the Council of Colleges in Acupuncture & Oriental Medicine (CCAOM). This course is regularly available through outside institutions and the cost is additional, approx $150-200.

ACS 532 (1 CREDIT) NEEDLE TECHNIQUE PRACTICUM
Prerequisite: Successful completion of all first-year AcS courses.
This course has didactic, demonstration and practical components. Didactic topics included Clean Needle Technique best practice for acupuncture, moxibustion, gua sha, cupping and heat lamps. Assembling a Clean Needle travel kit in preparation for the Clean Needle Exam and needling points on the four extremities, back and abdomen is demonstrated and practiced.

ACS 540 (3 CREDITS) POINT LOCATION I
This first of two courses provides students with an overview of seven of the main meridians, plus the Governing and Conception Vessels, including their internal pathways. Students are expected to memorize the location of the points on all of the meridians, be able to locate them on another person, know their associated contraindications, and the functions of the major points.

ACS 541 (3 CREDITS) POINT LOCATION II
Prerequisite: AcS 540

This second of two courses provides students with an overview of the remaining five meridians, including their internal pathways and the Extra Points. Students are expected to memorize the location of the points on all of the meridians, be able to locate them on another person, know their associated contraindications, and know the functions of the major points.

ACS 542 (2 CREDITS) POINT ENERGETICS IN TREATMENT PLANNING
Prerequisite: AcS 540/541
This course will focus on specific point energetics utilized in acupuncture treatment planning. Specific point functions, protocols, and combinations will be taught along with the name and spirit of the points.

ACS 551 (1.5 CREDITS) CLINICAL OBSERVATION I
This is the first phase of the students’ clinical education, consisting of one clinical shift. Students observe a senior practitioner in a treatment setting, take notes during the treatment and participate in group discussion after the treatment. This course enables students to begin the synthesis of theory and practice in their understanding of acupuncture. Guidelines for behavior, safety issues and ethical communication in clinical setting are introduced. This course introduces patient intake procedures, record- keeping, and privacy issues. Students learn to measure and record vital signs including blood pressure, respiratory rate, and pulse rates.

ACS 552 (1.5 CREDITS) CLINICAL OBSERVATION II
Prerequisite: AcS 551
This course continues the observation phase of clinical education. Students observe a senior practitioner in a treatment setting, take notes during the treatment and participate in group discussion after the treatment. This course enables students to begin the synthesis of theory and practice in their understanding of acupuncture. In addition to reinforcing Oriental medical theory, this second observation course teaches students to recognize high-risk patients in a clinical setting and make appropriate referrals. The student practices basic skills such as taking pulses, observing tongues, and recording patient notes.

ACS 553 (0.5 CREDITS) CLINICAL OBSERVATION III
Prerequisite: AcS 551/552
This course continues the observation phase of clinical education. Students observe a senior practitioner in a treatment setting, take notes during the treatment and participate in group discussion after the treatment. This course enables students to continue the synthesis of theory and practice in their understanding of acupuncture. The student refines basic skills such as taking pulses and observing tongues, and recording patient notes. The student may begin assisting the more senior student or clinical supervisor doing indirect moxa, mechanical cupping, gua sha, or plum blossom. During this third term of observation, students continue to acquire skills of assessment and referral and begin to create treatment plans. Students may broaden their scope of observation by fulfilling some hours in the faculty or student clinic

ACS 554 (1.5 CREDITS) CLINICAL OBSERVATION IV
Prerequisite: AcS 551/552/553
This course continues the observation phase of the students’ clinical education. Students observe a senior practitioner in a treatment setting, taking notes during the treatment and participating in group discussion after the treatment. The student may assist the more senior student or clinical supervisor doing indirect moxa, mechanical cupping, gua sha, or plum blossom. This course enables students to begin the synthesis of theory and practice in their understanding of acupuncture. During this fourth term of observation, students are expected to offer diagnoses, suggest treatment techniques, and propose treatment plans. Students may fulfill some hours at the student clinic, faculty clinic, and other off-site clinical settings.

ACS 565 (1 CREDIT) ORIENTAL PHYSICAL THERAPY I (SHIATSU)

This entry-level course introduces the basic principles of Shiatsu, Japanese Meridian Therapy, and the manipulations commonly used in healthcare practice. Lecture emphasizes the practical aspects of Japanese Shiatsu and theory. Students are expected to conduct extensive in-class and after-class practice.

ACS 590 (3 CREDITS) INTRODUCTION TO PHYSIOLOGICAL MEDICINE I
This course will provide students with information about human anatomy, physiology, and the physiological basis of disease. Students will develop sound understanding of health and disease from biomedical and holistic perspectives. The course emphasizes clinical application of human anatomy and physiology. Topics include medical terminology, and the respiratory, cardiac, digestive, reproductive, and urogenital systems. Muscle palpation also is introduced.

ACS 591 (3 CREDITS) INTRODUCTION TO PHYSIOLOGICAL MEDICINE II
Prerequisite: AcS 590
This course provides students with further information about human anatomy, physiology, and the physiological basis of disease. Students will gain a sound understanding of health and disease from Eastern and Western medical perspectives. The emphasis is on clinical application of human physiology, and further integration of concepts learned in AcS 590. Topics include the nervous, endocrine, immune, and lymphatic systems. Several classes focus on muscle palpation.

ACS 592 (3 CREDITS) INTRODUCTION TO PHYSIOLOGICAL MEDICINE III
Prerequisite: AcS 590/591
This course provides students with deepening understanding about human anatomy, physiology, and the physiological basis of disease. The emphasis is on clinical application of human physiology, and further integration of concepts learned in AcS 590 and 591. More sophisticated diagnostic palpation techniques are taught and practiced.

ACS 600 (2 CREDITS) INTEGRATIVE PHYSIOLOGICAL MEDICINE Prerequisite: AcS 501/502, 590/591

This course guides students as they integrate knowledge of human physiology gained in their Oriental Medical Theory and western biomedical courses. Students will develop a deeper understanding of human physiology and disease from these two perspectives as well as their applications to healing.

ACS 601 (3 CREDITS) DISEASE MANAGEMENT AND PREVENTION I Prerequisite: Successful completion of all AcS first-year courses.
This course provides students with information about disease management and prevention from the conventional medical perspective. Students become familiar with terminologies and ideas employed in the conventional diagnosis and treatment approach. This course helps students converse with healthcare providers of conventional medicine, and know when it is prudent to refer a patient to them. This term’s focus is on pathophysiological processes that lead to disease conditions in the heart, lung, liver, gastrointestinal tract, and blood vessels. Students learn the broad classes of pharmaceuticals used to treat these diseases.

ACS 602 (3 CREDITS) DISEASE MANAGEMENT AND PREVENTION II Prerequisite: AcS 601
This course provides students with information about disease management and prevention from the conventional medical perspective. Students become familiar with terminologies and ideas employed in the conventional diagnosis and general treatment approach. This course helps students converse with healthcare providers of conventional medicine, and know when it is prudent to refer a patient to them. This term’s focus is on pathophysiological processes of allergic reactions, infectious diseases, immune and non-immune mediated musculoskeletal diseases, headaches, peripheral neuropathy, renal, metabolic, and endocrine diseases. Students learn broad classes of pharmaceuticals used to treat these diseases.

ACS 603 (3 CREDITS) DISEASE MANAGEMENT AND PREVENTION III Prerequisite: AcS 601/602
This course provides students with information about disease management and prevention from the conventional medical perspective. Students become familiar with terminologies and ideas employed in the conventional diagnosis and general treatment approach. Through this course, students are equipped to converse with healthcare providers of conventional medicine, and know when it is prudent to refer to them. This term’s focus is on functional and organic nervous system disorders, physical and substance abuse, traumatic musculoskeletal joint disease and trauma (with or without motor impairment), and tools of proper assessment of these injuries. Students learn the broad classes of pharmaceuticals used to treat these diseases. Students will learn to identify issues of behavioral health, domestic violence of children and adults, and sexual abuse of children and will learn their requirements as a mandatory reporter.

ACS 604 (3 CREDITS) DISEASE MANAGEMENT AND PREVENTION IV Prerequisite: AcS 601/602/603

This course provides students with information about disease management and prevention from the conventional medical perspective. Students become familiar with medical terminology and ideas employed in conventional diagnosis and general treatment approach. Through this course, students are equipped to converse with healthcare providers of conventional medicine, and know when it is prudent to refer to them. This term’s areas of focus include women’s health issues, musculoskeletal and skin disorders, and common problems of eyes, ears, nose, throat, and oral cavity. Common surgical problems also will be reviewed. Advanced miscellaneous topics will be surveyed.

ACS 605 (1 CREDIT) ISSUES IN PRIMARY CARE MEDICINE
Prerequisite: AcS 604
This course will focus on communication, collaboration, and integration between practitioners of acupuncture and healthcare providers of biomedicine. The students will review current literature, research, and models of integrative medicine to better understand the issues of communication and collaboration in primary care medicine.

ACS 632 (1 CREDIT) NEEDLE TECHNIQUE PRACTICUM II
Prerequisite: AcS 532 Needle Technique Practicum I
In this course, the students review and build upon skills they learned in AcS 532 Needle Technique Practicum I. Techniques practiced include Clean Needle Technique, Aggressive Energy clearing, Japanese Akabane testing and treatment, bleeding and wet cupping, electric stimulation, plum blossom needling, NADA protocol, needling points on the chest, scalp and with difficult-to-needle locations.

ACS 641 (2 CREDITS) CLINICAL SKILLS/MENTOR GROUP I
Prerequisite: Successful completion of all AcS first- year courses.
This course trains students to embody the art and science of acupuncture. This course serves as a dress rehearsal for entering the student clinic, and as a bridge between diagnostic skills classes and student internship. With feedback and mentorship from the instructor, students will practice being the clinician, and model the instructor’s demonstrations. Students may be utilizing each other as “the patient” or guest patients may also be in attendance, according to class needs. The focus will be on the entire acupuncture treatment process, and a sharpening of diagnostic and treatment implementation skills. Following each clinical encounter the class will share perspectives on the diagnosis, treatment principles and treatment plans by utilizing diagnostic information and theoretical knowledge.

ACS 642 (2 CREDITS) CLINICAL SKILLS/MENTOR GROUP II
Prerequisite: AcS 641
This course provides students with the opportunity to develop accurate case history workups, diagnoses, treatment principles, point selection, and treatment plans within the framework of Oriental Medicine. Diagnoses, treatment principles, and treatment plans utilizing frameworks such as Five Element, the Extraordinary vessels, the secondary vessels, the Four Stages, and the Six Divisions also are explored. Students present cases in front of the class or see patients, followed by small-group discussions in which students formulate diagnosis and treatment plans. Follow-up treatments and discussions allow students to review their diagnoses and modify treatment plans. A review of meridian point location and supplementary clinical techniques are included.

ACS 651 (4 CREDITS) CLINICAL INTERNSHIP I
Prerequisites: The successful completion of all course work from the first five terms as well as the Pre-Clinical Skills Checklist.
These first two clinic internship courses begin the patient care and treatment phase of the students’ clinical education. Students will perform treatment under direct supervision of the attending practitioner. Students will apply assessment, diagnosis,, treatment principles, and actual treatment according to both the TCM/Eight Principles and Five Element paradigms. In addition to point selection, students will appropriately choose other modalities such
as gua sha, cupping, moxa, and trigger points. Added technical responsibilities are expected of the student as well as practice management and patient recruitment.

ACS 652 (6 CREDITS) CLINICAL INTERNSHIP II

Prerequisite: AcS 651
During these clinic internship courses, students continue to assume patient care and treatment responsibilities under supervision. In this term, students will refine the skills of color, sound, odor, and emotion as they learn to diagnose and treat patients with both the TCM/Eight Principle and the Five Element Acupuncture paradigms. Added technical responsibilities are expected of the student as well as practice management and patient recruitment. In this 15-week term, students will have the opportunity to treat three patients per shift for a total of ninety possible patient contacts.

ACS 653 (6 CREDITS) CLINICAL INTERNSHIP III
Prerequisite: AcS 651/652
During this clinic internship course, students continue to assume patient care and treatment responsibilities under supervision. The focus of this term will be the integration of TCM and Five Element paradigms. Students now are responsible for more complete patient care under supervision. The supervising practitioner confirms the diagnosis, approves the treatment plan, and reviews the execution of procedures, making appropriate choices using a variety of techniques. Greater competence is expected in terms of actual treatment, diagnostic, technical, patient recruitment, practice management, and rapport skills.

ACS 654 (4 CREDITS) CLINICAL INTERNSHIP IV
Prerequisite: AcS 651/652/ 653
During this clinic internship course, students continue
to assume patient care and treatment responsibilities
under supervision. Students will perform treatment under direct supervision of the attending practitioner. Added technical responsibilities are expected of the student as well as practice management and patient recruitment skills. Students will learn to work toward independence as practitioners and effectively use two or more styles of acupuncture. By the end of term, students will be expected to perform an assessment and formulate a treatment plan for returning patients within twenty minutes. Until students have graduated and gained licensure, they continue to work under the direct supervision of faculty.

ACS 665 (2 CREDITS) ORIENTAL PHYSICAL THERAPY II

Prerequisite: AcS 565
This class teaches traditional Oriental physiotherapy and effective, non-invasive bodywork to treat many soft-tissue and structural problems. Students learn basic principles and techniques to treat various common complaints.

ACS 673 (1 CREDIT) MEDICAL ETHICS
This course explores some of the most common and difficult issues that arise in the practice of acupuncture in terms of patient-practitioner interaction and in the context of the medical community at large. Specific skills and techniques for managing these issues in a clinical setting are discussed along with general topics pertaining to medical ethics.

ACS 682 (3 CREDITS) PRACTICE MANAGEMENT I
This course provides students with the information they need to develop an acupuncture practice in a professional business setting. The emphasis in this first course is on outlining the information and professional skills necessary to provide acupuncture health care to diverse patient populations in a variety of clinical settings. Students explore professional options, begin to define their professional direction, and identify resources to support future business planning.

ACS 684 (2 CREDITS) PRACTICE MANAGEMENT II
Prerequisite: AcS 682
This second part of the Practice Management sequence continues the task of providing students with the information necessary to translate their acupuncture training into a thriving practice. The emphasis of this second course is on the practical application of the tools and skills learned in AcS 682. Students create a business plan using resources from legal, insurance, and other auxiliary professionals.

ACS 688 (3 CREDITS) ACUPUNCTURE RESEARCH PROJECT ELECTIVE Prerequisite: AcS 515 and all prerequisites for entering Clinical Internship.
This elective course allows the student to design and implement an acupuncture research project to be carried out under faculty supervision within the Student Clinic setting during their Clinical Internship year. Students will build upon research skills gained in AcS 515 and the body of knowledge developed over the first two years of the program to create a viable short-term project. The process will include meeting with the faculty supervisor in the summer term of Year Two to plan and design the project; submitting the project to the Won Institutional Review Board (IRB) for approval before executing the study in the Fall or Spring term of Year Three in the Student Clinic; completion of the project utilizing assessment, critique, and formal write-up of data suitable for publication prior to graduation. Alternate research topics may be offered periodically. This course fulfills the three-credit elective requirement of the program meaning that any student who completes the course need not take a CC elective course.

ACS 690 (4 CREDITS) ORIENTAL MEDICAL THEORY IV

Prerequisite: AcS 501/502/503
This course continues instruction on the various theories and methods of pattern identification, with an emphasis on Five Phase Theory, Channel and Network Theory, Six Stages, Four Levels, and Triple Burner discrimination.

ACS 691 (4 CREDITS) ORIENTAL MEDICAL SPECIALTIES I
Prerequisite: AcS 501/502/503/690
This course introduces students to specialties within Oriental medicine, including the treatment of women, children, and the elderly. The special considerations that arise when treating specific patient populations are explored. Internal medicine is surveyed with an emphasis on neurology, pediatrics, ent, ob-gyn, cardiology, and dermatology. To advance their diagnostic skills, students examine case histories in view of the theory they learned over the course of the sequence. Students’ advanced knowledge aids them in refining treatment principles and treatment plans in their Clinical Rounds.

ACS 692 (4 CREDITS) ORIENTAL MEDICAL SPECIALTIES II
Prerequisite: AcS 691
This course further exposes students to specialties within Oriental medicine. The special considerations that arise when treating specific patient populations are explored. Internal medicine will be surveyed with an emphasis on the collection and differentiation of information using the Four Exams. Specialty areas covered include pain control, gastroenterology, urology, psychology, rheumatology, and palliative care for cancer. Case histories and theoretical application of OMT theory hone student diagnoses and treatment skills. Students’ advanced knowledge aids them in refining treatment principles and treatment plans for their patients.

ACS 5001 (3 CREDITS) HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY I

Anatomy and Physiology is based on structure and function of the human body on the following levels of organization: chemical, biochemical, cell, tissue, organ systems, muscular system, nervous system, and special senses. This course is a prerequisite for the Acupuncture program, and must be completed prior to Year 1 classes (see Admissions Requirements). It is typically offered in the summer before Year 1. The cost for the course is $283 per credit and is not included in tuition.

ACS 5002 (3 CREDITS) HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY II
Anatomy and Physiology is based on structure and function of the human body on the following levels of organization: cardiovascular system; the immune system; respiratory; digestive and urinary systems; fluid and electrolyte balance; and reproduction. This course is a prerequisite for the Acupuncture program, and must be completed prior to Year 1 classes (see Admissions Requirements). It is typically offered in the summer before Year 1. The cost for the course is $283 per credit and is not included in tuition.